1. Your disorder is located on at least one of 23 chromosomes. I want you to explain how, in detail, the characteristics of your disorder show up in the body using DNA, nucleus, cell, mRNA, tRNA, amino acid, ribosome, and protein and endoplasmic reticulum.
There are two ways that a disease gets started when a nucleotide is mutated or when a strand is coded improperly. If code mutates in the DNA cell, a disease will show up when the strand is recoded, to reproduce itself or for any other reason. The first step for this to happen is when the DNA strand splits up in the nucleus. A strand of mRNA then attempts to come in and code one strand of the DNA. At this point (assuming only one strand is coded wrong) there is still a fifty - fifty chance it will be coded right. If the mRNA floats to the non-damaged side of the strand, it will still be coded right. However, if it codes for the damaged side, it will transfer that data over the endoplasmic reticulum to the tRNA in the ribosome, and when protein synthesis occurs, a wrong amino acid will be coded. This will result in the protein that is created to be incorrect, and this may cause problems in the protein that is created. If multiple problems such as this occur, a genetic disorder could occur. In schizophrenia, one example of this is when the proteins for brain function are coded. Because of an improperly coded protein, the parts of the brain that control listening skills are affected negatively. This happens during protein synthesis.
1. What, in detail, causes the genetic diversity we see in people?
Many factors affect genetic diversity. During meiosis, the genes cross over. This process is not regular, and all the chromosomes cross over differently. Different amounts of each chromosome cross over. This means that it is possible for some more of a specific parent's traits to be passed on to the child then the other because the chromosomes can be crossed over different amounts. These chromosomes are then randomly distributed so that even with even crossing over, it is still a random process.
2. How is sex determined? Include both parents in your description.
The egg cell is always the home to an X chromosome pair, while the sperm cell can either hold an X or a Y chromosome in that specific place. If a pair is made that is XX (sperm cell contained X chromosome) then the child will be female. If it is XY (sperm cell contained Y chromosome) it will be a male.
3. Compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis based on their similarities and differences.
Mitosis and meiosis are very similar up to the point of crossing over. They both replicate then divide into two cells. The difference is that in mitosis, this process does not stop. In meiosis, the chromosomes line up, and parts of them cross over. This means that the chromosomes are no longer just from a mother or father, they are part of each and thus are genetically different. These chromosomes then split into two cells randomly. They then split again so that there are the required 23 chromosomes in each cell necessary for sexual reproduction.
4. Compare the genes that are in a cell at the end of meiosis to the genes that made up the original cell at the beginning of this process.
At the end of meiosis, the cell has only 23 chromosomes, where at the beginning there were 46. The chromosomes of the end cell after meiosis are also crossed over, meaning that they are partly made up of genes from each parent. There are four cells for each cell that starts through the process, because of the replication and subsequent splitting of the cell.